Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution

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Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution

Introduction to Electrical Power Transmission and distribution

The Electrical Power Transmission and distribution refers to the different stages of transmitting electricity from generators to homes or businesses through utility poles and cables. The main difference between the two is the voltage level at which the current moves in each phase.

After the electricity is generated, the cable system transmits the electricity from the generating source to our homes and businesses. These lines can be found overhead or sometimes on the ground. Power transmission and distribution lines combine to form what is commonly referred to as a “network.” Transmission and distribution are two independent stages or systems in the network.

The fundamentals of an electrical power transfer system

Power transmission involves the massive movement of electrical energy from power stations (such as power stations or power plants) to substations, where the voltage is converted and distributed to consumers or other substations.

The interconnecting lines that allow the movement of electrical energy are called “transmission networks” and form a power transmission system, or more widely known as the power grid.

Primary transmission

When generated in a power plant, electrical energy usually ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. Before sending to the distribution center through the transmission line, according to the required transmission distance, use a transformer with a voltage level from 100 kV to 700 kV or higher to boost the voltage; the greater the distance, the higher the voltage level.

The reason for increasing electrical power at these voltage levels is to improve efficiency by reducing the I2R losses that occur when transmitting power. When the voltage increases, the current decreases relative to the voltage, so that the power remains constant, thereby reducing these I2R losses.

This stage is called single transmission: a large amount of electricity is transmitted from the initial power plant to the substation through overhead cables. In some countries, underground cables are also used for short transmission distances.

Secondary transmission

When the power reaches the receiving station, the voltage usually returns to the voltage between 33 kV and 66 kV. Then, this receiving station is sent to a new electrical substation, a city, a town, a transmission line close to an electrical substation, such as urban areas. This process is known as secondary transmission.

When the power reaches a substation, the deceleration converter approaches approximately 11 kV generated by a decrease transformer. From here, the permeate phase is qualified in the distribution phase, and the energy is used to satisfy the demand of the main consumer and the secondary consumer.

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