Signals and Systems

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Signals and Systems

Signals and Systems

Signals and Systems is an introduction to analog and digital signal processing. This topic is an integral part of engineering systems in many different fields, including seismic data processing, communications, voice processing, image processing, electronics, defense, consumer electronics, and products.

Basic concepts of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems. The representation of signals and systems is developed for the time domain and frequency domain. These representations are related by Fourier transform and its generalization, which will be discussed in detail.

Discuss and explain the filtering and filter design, modulation and sampling of analog and digital systems, as well as the discussion and demonstration of the basic knowledge of analog and digital system feedback systems.

the basics of signals and systems necessary for understanding the concepts of digital image processing. Before going into the detailed concepts, let’s first define the simple terms.


In electrical engineering, the fundamental quantity of representing some information is called a signal. It does not matter what the information is i-e: Analog or digital information. In mathematics, a signal is a function that conveys some information. In fact any quantity measurable through time over space or any higher dimension can be taken as a signal. A signal could be of any dimension and could be of any form.

Analog signals

A signal could be an analog quantity that means it is defined with respect to the time. It is a continuous signal. These signals are defined over continuous independent variables. They are difficult to analyze, as they carry a huge number of values. They are very much accurate due to a large sample of values. In order to store these signals , you require an infinite memory because it can achieve infinite values on a real line. Analog signals are denoted by sin waves.

Digital signals

As compared to analog signals, digital signals are very easy to analyze. They are discontinuous signals. They are the appropriation of analog signals.

The word digital stands for discrete values and hence it means that they use specific values to represent any information. In a digital signal, only two values are used to represent something i-e: 1 and 0 (binary values). Digital signals are less accurate than analog signals because they are the discrete samples of an analog signal taken over some time. However digital signals are not subject to noise. So they last longer and are easy to interpret. Digital signals are denoted by square waves.

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