Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

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Object Oriented Programming (OOP)


The Object oriented programming (OOP) uses the best-structured programming ideas and combines them with several new concepts. The result is a different and better way of organizing procedures. In the most general sense, a program can be organized in two ways: the code that surrounds it (what happens) or the data that surrounds it (who is affected). Using only structured programming techniques, programs are usually organized around code. This method can be thought of as “code acting on data”.

Object oriented programs are the opposite. They are organized around data, and the key principle is “data that controls access to code” in object oriented languages; you define data and routines that can perform operations on the data. Therefore, the data type precisely defines what operations can be applied to the data. In order to support the principles of object-oriented programming, all object-oriented programming languages, including C++, have three common characteristics-encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance.


The Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs) refers to programming languages that employ objects, as the name implies. Object-oriented programming seeks to implement real-world elements in programming such as inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, and so on. The primary goal of OOP is to connect the data and the functions that act on it such that no other portion of the code may access the data except that function.


The history of C++ began with C. C++ is based on C . Therefore, C++ is a superset of C. C++ extensions and  enhance the C language to support object-oriented programming (described later in this module). C++ also adds several other enhancements to the C language, including an extended set of library routines. However, most of the spirit and flavor of C ++ is inherited directly from C . Therefore, to fully understand and appreciate C ++, you must understand the “how and why” behind C. C ++ was invented by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Laboratory in Murray Hill, New Jersey. He initially called the new language “C with classes”, but in 1983 changed the name to C ++. Stroustrup built C ++ based on C, including all the features and benefits of C. He also insisted on to underlying C programmers are not responsible for the philosophy of the language. At this point, understand what Stroustrup has done by does not create a completely new programming language. On the contrary, he enhanced a language that was already very successful.

The core of C++ is object-oriented programming (OOP). OOP is the driving force behind the creation of C++, so it is helpful to understand the basics of OOP before writing a simple C++ program.


  1. Introduction :

What is object-oriented programming? Why do we need object-oriented? Programming characteristics of object-oriented languages. C and C++.

  1. C++ Programming basics :

Output using cout. Directives. Input with cin. Type bool. The setw manipulator. Type conversions.

  1. Functions :

Returning values from functions. Reference arguments. Overloaded function. Inline function. Default arguments. Returning by reference.

  1. Object and Classes :

Making sense of core object concepts (Encapsulation, Abstraction, Polymorphism, Classes, Messages Association, Interfaces) Implementation of class in C++, C++ Objects as a physical object, C++ object as data types constructor. Object as function arguments. The default copy constructor, returning the object from the function. Structures and classes. Classes objects and memory static class data. Const and classes.

  1. Arrays and string arrays fundamentals. Arrays as class Member

Data: Arrays of object, string, The standard C++ String class

  1. Operator overloading :

Overloading unary operations. Overloading binary operators, data conversion, pitfalls of operators overloading, and conversion keywords. Explicit and Mutable.

  1. Inheritance :

Concept of inheritance. Derived class and based class. Derived class constructors, member function, inheritance in the English distance class, class hierarchies, inheritance and graphics shapes, public and private inheritance, aggregation: Classes within classes, inheritance, and program development.

  1. Pointer :

Addresses and pointers. The address of operator and pointer and arrays. Pointer and Faction pointer and C-types string. Memory management: New and Delete, pointers to objects, debugging pointers.

  1. Virtual Function :

Virtual Function, friend function, Static function, Assignment and copy initialization, this pointer, dynamic type information.

  1. Streams and Files :

Streams classes, Stream Errors, Disk File I/O with streams, file pointers, error handling in file I/O with member function, overloading the extraction and insertion operators, memory as a stream object, command line arguments, and printer output.

  1. Templates and Exceptions :

Function templates, Class templates Exceptions

  1. The Standard Template Library :

Introduction algorithms, sequence containers, iterators, specialized iterators, associative containers, strong user-defined objects, function objects.

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