Object Oriented Programming

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Object Oriented Programming

Object Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a fundamental programming paradigm that almost every developer has utilised at some time in their career. OOP is the most widely used programming paradigm, and it is taught as the conventional method to write for the majority of a programmer’s academic career.

What exactly is Object Oriented Programming (OOP)?

Object Oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concepts of classes and objects. It is used to arrange a software programs into basic, reusable code blueprints (typically referred to as classes), which are then used to construct individual instances of objects. Object-oriented programming languages include JavaScript, C++, Java, and Python, among others.

A class is a generic blueprint that may be used to construct more particular, concrete things. Classes are frequently used to describe large groups, such as Car or Dog, that share features. These classes describe which characteristics, such as color, an instance of this type will have, but not the values of those attributes.

The Advantages of OOP

  • OOP represents complicated things as simple, repeatable structures.
  • OOP objects are reusable and may be utilized across applications.
  • Polymorphism enables class-specific behavior.
  • Classes are easier to debug since they frequently include all relevant information.
  • Encapsulation ensures security and safeguards information.

What is the organizational structure of object-oriented programming?

Object-oriented programming’s structure, or building blocks, include the following:

Classes: Classes are data types that are created by the user and serve as the blueprint for individual objects, properties, and functions.

Objects: Objects are instances of a class that are produced with specified data. Things can be real-world objects or abstract entities. When a class is first formed, the description is the sole object specified.

Methods: Methods are functions created within a class that explain an object’s behaviour. Every method in a class definition begins with a reference to an instance object. In addition, the subroutines stored within an object are referred to as instance methods. Methods are used by programmers to ensure reusability or to keep functionality contained within a single object at a time.

Attributes: Attributes are defined in the class template and describe an object’s state. Data will be saved in the attributes field of objects. Class characteristics are the property of the class itself.

What are the fundamental concepts of OOP?

The following concepts underlying object-oriented programming:

Encapsulation: According to this concept, all relevant information is held within an object and just a subset of it is exposed. Each object’s implementation and state are kept private within a specified class. Other objects do not have access to or power over this class. They can only call a set of public functions or methods. This data concealing feature improves software security and prevents unintentional data damage.

Abstraction: Objects only expose internal mechanisms that are essential for the usage of other objects, while concealing any superfluous implementation code. The functionality of the derived class can be enhanced. This approach can make it easier for developers to make new adjustments or additions over time.

Inheritance: Code from other classes can be reused by classes. Relationships and subclasses may be given to objects, allowing developers to reuse common logic while yet retaining a distinct hierarchy. This OOP property necessitates a more complete data analysis, shortens development time, and assures a greater degree of accuracy.

Polymorphism: Objects are intended to share behaviour and can take on several forms. The software will identify which meaning or usage is required for each execution of that object from a parent class, eliminating the need for duplicate code. The parent class’s functionality is then extended by creating a child class. Polymorphism enables many sorts of objects to flow via the same interface.

Which of the following are examples of object-oriented programming languages?

While Simula is widely regarded as the first object-oriented programming language, several other programming languages are now used in conjunction with OOP. However, certain programming languages work better with OOP than others. Programming languages that are called pure OOP languages, for example, treat everything as an object. Other programming languages are largely built towards OOP, with some procedural processes thrown in for good measure.

Popular pure OOP languages include, for example:

  • Ruby
  • Scala
  • JADE
  • Emerald

Among the programming languages built primarily for OOP are:

  • Java
  • Python
  • C++

Visual Basic.NET is another programming language that works well with OOP.

  • PHP
  • JavaScript

Alternative methods of object-oriented programming include:

  • Functional programming: This includes languages ​​used in fault-tolerant systems and telecommunications such as Erlang and Scala.
  • Structured or modular programming: This includes languages ​​like PHP and C#.
  • Imperative programming: This alternative to object-oriented programming focuses on functions rather than models and includes C ++ and Java.
  • Declarative programming: This method of programming involves statements about what the task or desired result is, but not how to achieve it. Languages ​​include Prolog and Lisp.
  • Logic programming: This method is mainly based on formal logic and uses languages ​​such as Prolog, which contains a set of sentences that express facts or rules about the domain of the problem. It focuses on tasks that can benefit from rule-based logical queries.
  • Most high-level programming languages ​​allow developers to combine models because they can be used in different programming methods. For example, JavaScript can be used for functional programming and OOP.

Developers using OOP and microservices can solve common microservices problems by applying OOP principles.

Introduction to Programming

The program is a sequence or step by step of instruction along with data.
● A program is constituted by two fundamental parts:
● A representation of the information relative to the domain of interest: object
● Description of how to manipulate the representation in such a way as to understand the desired functionality: Operations.
● The programming language has two components
1. syntax and
2. semantics

Programming Paradigms

● Paradigm is a method to solve some problem or do some task.
● A programming paradigm is an approach to solve the problem using some programming language tools and technique


Programming Basics

Introduction to Programming, Programming Paradigms, Programming Languages, and Types.

Introduction to C – Basic Program Structure, Execution flow of C Program, Directives, Basic Input /Output.

Introduction to Object Oriented Programming- OOP concepts, Advantages, Applications, Comparison of C and C++-Data Types, Control Structures, Operators and Expressions

Introduction to C++

Structure of a C++ program, Execution flow, Classes and Objects, Access modifiers, Data Members, Member Functions, Inline Functions, Passing parameters to a Function(pass by Value, Pass by Address, Pass by Reference), Function with default arguments, Function Overloading, Object as a Parameter, Returning Object Static data members and functions, Constant Data members and functions Constructors – Default, Parameterized, Copy, Constructor Overloading, Destructors Arrays, Array as a Class Member, Array of Objects, Strings-C style strings, and String Class

Operator Overloading and Pointers

Operator Functions-Member and Non-Member Functions, Friend Functions Overloading Unary operators Overloading binary operators(Arithmetic, Relational, Arithmetic Assignment, equality), Overloading Subscript operator.

Type Conversion Operators- primitive to Object, Object to primitive, Object to Object.

Disadvantages of operator Overloading, Explicit and Mutable Pointers, Pointer and Address of Operator, Pointer to an Array and Array of Pointers, Pointer arithmetic, Pointer to a Constant and Constant Pointer, Pointer Initialization, Types of Pointers(void, null and dangling), Dynamic Memory.

Allocation, Advantages, and Applications of pointers

Inheritance and Polymorphism

Inheritance Concept, Protected modifier, Derivation of Inheritance- Public, Private and Protected, Types of Inheritance-Simple, Multilevel, Hierarchical, Multiple, Hybrid, Constructors and Inheritance, Function Overriding and Member hiding.

Multiple Inheritance, Multipath inheritance – Ambiguities and solutions.

Polymorphism, Static and Dynamic Binding, Virtual Functions, Pure Virtual Functions, Virtual destructors, Abstract Classes, Interfaces.

Streams and Exceptions

Files, Text and Binary Files, Stream Classes, File IO using.

Stream classes, File pointers, Error Streams, Random File

Access, Manipulators, Overloading Insertion and extraction operators

Error handling, Exceptions, Throwing and catching exceptions, Custom Exceptions, Built-in exceptions

Advanced C++

Casting- Static casts, Const Casts, Dynamic Casts, and Reinterpret Casts.

Creating Libraries and header files. Namespaces Generic Programming, Templates, Class Templates, Function Templates, Template arguments, STL Database Programming with MySQL

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